About Riyadh

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2- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riyadh


"The thriving capital at the heart of the modern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"

The name Riyadh is derived from the Arabic word meaning a place of gardens and trees ("rawdah"). It was called Al-Yamamah in the past. With many wadis (a former water course, now dry) in the vicinity, Riyadh has been since antiquity a fertile area set in the heartland of the Arabian Peninsula.

Geography & Location

The city is in the interior of the country 530 miles by road from Jeddah on the Red Sea and 240 miles from Dammam on the Arabian Gulf. About 1000 miles out along the road to Jeddah is the impressive Tuwaiq escarpment - brittle sandstone cliffs rising 200 to 500 ft. for about 30 miles. To the South about 50 miles from Riyadh lies AI Kharj, an extensively irrigated area with much agriculture.

Riyadh is the capital city as well as the most populous city of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which lies in the Central Region called Najd, on a sedimentary plateau 600 meters above sea level. It has a very dry climate and rainfall, but a good underground water supply makes it one of the few natural fertile areas in the Kingdom outside the south-west.

The population exceeds two million, and the total inhabited area is more than 1,600 km. Riyadh also contains two university "cities," King Saud and Imam Mohammad bin Saud Islamic University, in addition to military and security colleges, specialized institutes, information, cultural information and cultural centers, sports facilities and stadiums, literary Centers and public libraries.


The weather is dry and hot in the summer and cold in the winter. Temperatures range from 20-36 degrees celsius; and the average rainfall is 10-20 mm.



The successful transformation of a traditional sedentary and nomadic society into a modern urban one finds no more effective example than in Riyadh today. It's recovery by Abdul Aziz marked a turning-point in Saudi fortunes. Its governmental role forever transformed the city.

Riyadh now rivals any modern city in the world in the splendor of its architecture. An infusion of wealth from petroleum sales beginning in the 1940s helped transform Riyadh into a major metropolitan center, with a modern infrastructure and transportation system. Broad highways sweep through the city, passing over or under each other in an impressive and still growing road network. Trees now bedeck the broad streets and avenues, giving pleasure to passers-by and shade to those who linger beneath them. Today the city extends for some 600 square miles (1600 square kilometers) and has a population of more than 4.7 million.

Riyadh is the seat of government; ministries, embassies, diplomatic missions, as well as it contain educational, financial, agricultural, cultural, technical, commercial and social organizations. As an important world capital, Riyadh receives an annual stream of heads of state and public figures form the Western, Arab, Islamic and developing countries further underlining the city's increasingly pivotal role in Arab affairs generally.

As the capital, Riyadh has come to its own. It is no longer the "secret city" to which intrepid nineteenth century travelers journeyed. It has its own radio television production complex, satellite telecommunications facilities, the largest and most modern university campus in the Kingdom, colleges, schools, hospitals, clinics and specialist health care centers. The 170 meter television transformation tower at the Ministry of Information is major landmark of the city. The conference Palace in Al Nasiriyah is the largest in the Middle East.

Although Riyadh has officially been the capital of Saudi Arabia since 1932, it played second fiddle to Jeddah until the 1970s. Built with oil boom money, Riyadh is now a high-tech oasis of glass, steel and concrete, home to huge hotels, even larger hospitals and one of the biggest airports in the world.

Riyadh: brief of History

The history of Riyadh and its growth from a relatively small settlement into a great modern city is inextricably involved with the rise of the Saudi state. With Riyadh as the capital of the Saudi Arabian Kingdom which Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud (Ibn Saud) founded, it was inevitable that the city would grow. By 1955 (1375 AH), all ministries and government offices had been moved to or established in Riyadh. In the same year, a Royal Decree was issued raising the status of the municipality of Riyadh to that of mayoralty. Its scope of responsibility was greatly enlarged and its resources increased to enable it to cope with its growing size and population.

In the midst of the city's extraordinary growth, the history of the city has not been forgotten. Preservation orders now ensure the survival of the Masmak fort which Abdul Aziz (Ibn Saud) scaled in 1902 (1319/20 AH), a fitting reminder of a turning point in the history of the city and, indeed, the Arabian Peninsula.